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MLA CitationAnnotated Bibliography
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WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) description and evaluation of the source -- the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.


THE PROCESS

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills:  concise writing, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, articles, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Second, cite the book, article, or document using the APA citation.

Third, write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme of your source.  Include:

  • An evaluation of the authority or background of the author
  • A comment on the intended audience
  • Explain how this work relates to your research topic

SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE

Research Question  How can schools and othe institutions help shrink the gap in the digital divide? How can schools assess digital literacy in students and families?

Meneses, J., & Mominó, J. M. (2010). Putting Digital Literacy in Practice: How Schools Contribute

     to Digital Inclusion in the Network Society. Information Society, 26(3), 197-208.

     doi:10.1080/01972241003712231

Meneses and Mominó collected questionnaires from 6,602 school children from 350 schools in Catalonia, Spain representing a heterogenous genders, classes, ethnicities, and types of schools (public, private, vocational, etc.).  Students were asked about their online activities to assess their digital literacy skills looking for information, communicating, and sharing files online.  They were also asked to describe how they had learned these skills and in what context (school, family, friends, tutors, etc.).  The authors focus on the children as active rather than passive subjects and analyze their answers to questions about how and where they acquired digital literacy skills.  This essay will help me address both the impact of what they call "digital inequality" and "digital exclusion" as well as thinking about how schools might work with students and their families to improve digital literacy skills. 

Source:  Adapted from  “The Annotated Bibliography.”  Research & Learning Services, Cornell University Library

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