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ENGL 12B/14B Najarro

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Articles are written by different authors and for different readers:

  • Magazine articles are written by professional writers for a general audience.  These include magazines like National Geographic, Time, and People.
  • Newspaper articles are written by journalists for a general audience.  Local papers, like the Santa Cruz Sentinel, focus on local issues and readers.  They are generally short and are written quickly to focus on the latest news.
  • Scholarly Articles, also known as "Peer-Reviewed Articles," or "Academic Articles," these are:

    • Written and reviewed by scholars and provide new research, analysis, or information about a specific topic.
    • "Review" means the article is approved by other experts before publication
    • Usually focused on a narrow subject or a single case study
    • Intended for an academic audience

Find Journal Articles:

Unlike articles, books:

  • Are written on a broader, general subject
  • May contain a collection of related chapters by different authors
  • Contain less recent information

Remember: you may only need to read one chapter of a scholarly book!

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These sources fall into two broad categories for English researchers:

  • Literary Works (novels, poetry, plays, etc.)
  • Scholarly Works, including:
    • Author Biographies
    • Studies of language, grammar, linguistics
    • Historical or multidisciplinary surveys (cover a topic relevant to understanding a literary work)
    • Bibliographies (thematic listings of literary works)

When & Why to Use Scholarly Books:

  • You need to understand a complex topic (these are easier to read than journal articles)
  • You need very in-depth analysis of a topic
  • You need broad coverage of one or more topics
  • You need a summary of existing research on a topic

Key Features of Scholarly Books:

  • Written on a broad subject
  • Easier to read than journal articles, and written for a broad audience
  • Often undergo a peer-review process
  • May contain a collection of chapters written by different authors
  • Contain less recent information, due to the lengthy publication process

Remember: you may only need to read one chapter of a scholarly book!


  •  The Academy of American Poets. Occasions, themes, forms, schools & movements. Browse Poems and Poets.
  • Poetry Foundation  Articles, Video, Audio & Podcasts. Browse Poems and Poets. Poetry Out Loud.
  • Voices from the Gaps VG/Voices from the Gaps in 1996 to uncover, highlight, and share the works of marginalized artists, predominately women writers of color living and working in North America. Search the collection by: author’s name, title of the work, time period in which the author lived, or the ethnicity.
  • Voces: Veterans Oral History Project -- from the School of Journalism at the University of Texas at Austin
  • Library of Congress: Poetry and Literature Center at Library of Congress

‚ÄčHand holding three polaroid pictures

Images may include:

  • Photographs
  • Paintings
  • Maps

Find Images:

  • OneSearch  Limit to books by selecting "Images" 
  • Artstor  Thousands of high-resolutions images from museums and libraries
  • Calisphere: California collection of Primary source images

newspapersNews Sources:

  • Intended for a general audience
  • Written by journalists
  • Reviewed by one or more editors for quality and accuracy
  • Provide information on a recent event or topic of interest
  • Provide the perspectives of average people, not experts

IMPORTANT NOTE: Not all news sources are created equal! Some have hidden (or obvious!) motives or political beliefs. Do some background research into who owns the news organization to learn more about it.

Find News Sources: